Less than one-third of family businesses survive the transition from first to second generation ownership. Of those that do, about half do not survive the transition from second to third generation ownership. At any given time, 40 percent of U.S. businesses are facing the transfer of ownership issue. Founders are trying to decide what to do with their businesses; however, the options are few.
The following is a list of options to consider:
- Close the doors.
- Sell to an outsider or employee.
- Retain ownership but hire outside management.
- Retain family ownership and management control.
There are four basic reasons why family firms fail to transfer the business successfully:
- Lack of viability of the business.
- Lack of planning.
- Little desire on the owner's part to transfer the firm.
- Reluctance of offspring to join the firm.
The primary cause for failure is the lack of planning. With the right succession plans in place, the business, in most cases, will remain healthy.
Transferring the family business requires the family to make a determined effort to do the following:
- Create a business strategic plan.
- Create a family strategic plan.
- Prepare an Estate Plan.
- Prepare a Succession Plan, including arranging for successor training and setting a retirement date.
These are the four plans that make up the transition process. By implementing them, you will virtually ensure the successful transfer of your business within the family hierarchy.
Q: What is a business strategic plan?
A: A business strategic plan defines goals, objectives, and targets for a company and outlines its resources will be allocated in order to achieve them. When a strategic business plan is in place, it allows each generation an opportunity to chart a course for the firm. Setting business goals as a family will ensure that everyone has a clear picture of the company's future. A strategic plan is long-term in nature and focuses on where you want the business to be at some future date.
Q: What is a family strategic plan?
A: The family strategic plan establishes policies for the family's role in the business and is needed to maintain a healthy, viable business. For example, it should include the creed or mission statement that spells out your family's values and basic policies for the business, and it may include an entry and exit policy that outlines the criteria for working in the business. The plan should consider which family members desire to have a part in management of the business versus those who desire a more passive role.
Q: What is an estate plan?
A: An estate plan is a written document that outlines the disposal of one's estate and includes such things as a will, trust, power of attorney, and a living will. An estate plan is critical for the family and the business because, without it, you will pay higher estate taxes than necessary, allocating less of the estate to your heirs. The estate plan should be used in conjunction with the succession plan to see that the family business is transferred in a tax effective manner.
Q: What is a succession plan?
A: A succession plan identifies key individuals who will be groomed to take over the business when the time comes. It also outlines how succession will occur and how to know when the successor is ready. Having a succession plan in place goes a long way toward easing the founding or current generation's concerns about transferring the firm.
Before starting out, list your reasons for wanting to go into business. Some of the most common reasons for starting a business include wanting to be self-employed, wanting financial and creative independence, and wanting to maximize your skills and knowledge.
When determining what business is "right for you," consider what you like to do with your time, what technical skills you have, recommendations from others, and whether any of your hobbies or interests are marketable. You must also decide what kind of time commitment you're willing to make to run a business.
Then you should do research to identify the niche your business will fill. Your research should address such questions as what services or products you plan to sell, whether your idea fits a genuine need, what competition exists, and how you can gain a competitive advantage. Most importantly, can you create a demand for your business?
The following outline of a typical business plan can serve as a guide that you can adapt to your specific business:
- Financial Management
- Concluding Statement
Q: What should be included in the introduction to my business plan?
A: The introductory section of your business plan should give a detailed description of the business and its goals, discuss its ownership and legal structure, list the skills and experience you bring to the business, and identify the competitive advantage your business possesses.
Q: What should be included in the marketing section of my business plan?
A: In the marketing section, you should discuss what products/services your business offers and the customer demand for them. Furthermore, this section should identify your market and discuss its size and locations. Finally, you should explain various advertising, marketing, and pricing strategies you plan to utilize.
Q: What should be included in the financial management section of my business plan?
A: In this section, explain the source and amount of initial equity capital. Also, develop a monthly operating budget for the first year as well as an expected return on investment, or ROI, and monthly cash flow for the first year. Next, provide projected income statements and balance sheets for a two-year period, and discuss your break-even point. Explain your personal balance sheet and method of compensation. Discuss who will maintain your accounting records and how they will be kept. Finally, provide "what if" statements that address alternative approaches to any problem that may develop.
Q: What should be included in the operations section of my business plan?
A: This section explains how the business will be managed on a day-to-day basis. It should cover hiring and personnel procedures, insurance, lease or rent agreements. It should also account for the equipment necessary to produce your products or services and for production and delivery of products and services.
Q: What should be included in the concluding statement of my business plan?
A: In the ending summary statement, summarize your business goals and objectives and express your commitment to the success of your business. Also, be specific as to how you plan to achieve your goals.
To succeed, your business must be based on something greater than a desire to be your own boss: an honest assessment of your own personality, an understanding of what's involved, and a lot of hard work.
You have to be willing to plan ahead and then make improvements and adjustments along the road. Overall, it is important that you establish a professional environment in your home; you should even set up a separate office in your home, if possible.
A home-based business is subject to many of the same laws and regulations affecting other businesses. Be sure to consult an attorney and your state department of labor to find out which laws and regulations will affect your business. For instance, be aware of your city's zoning regulations. Also, certain products may not be produced in the home.
Most states outlaw home production of fireworks, drugs, poisons, explosives, sanitary or medical products, and toys. Some states also prohibit home-based businesses from making food, drink, or clothing.
In terms of registration and accounting requirements, you may need a work certificate or a license from the state, a sales tax number, a separate business telephone, and a separate business bank account.
Finally, if your business has employees, you are responsible for withholding income and social security taxes, and for complying with minimum wage and employee health and safety laws.
Failure to properly plan cash flow is one of the leading causes of small business failures. Experience has shown that many small business owners lack an understanding of basic accounting principles. Knowing the basics will help you better manage your cash flow.
A business's monetary supply can exist either as cash on hand or in a business checking account available to meet expenses. A sufficient cash flow covers your business by meeting obligations (i.e., paying bills), serving as a cushion in case of emergencies, and providing investment capital.
The Operating Cycle
The operating cycle is the system through which cash flows, from the purchase of inventory through the collection of accounts receivable. It measures the flow of assets into cash. For example, your operating cycle may begin with both cash and inventory on hand. Typically, additional inventory is purchased on account to guarantee that you will not deplete your stock as sales are made. Your sales will consist of cash sales and accounts receivable - credit sales. Accounts receivable are usually paid 30 days after the original purchase date. This applies to both the inventory you purchase and the products you sell. When you make payment for inventory, both cash and accounts payable are reduced. Thirty days after the sale of your inventory, receivables are usually collected, which increases your cash. Now your cash has completed its flow through the operating cycle and is ready to begin again
Cash-flow analysis should show whether your daily operations generate enough cash to meet your obligations, and how major outflows of cash to pay your obligations relate to major inflows of cash from sales. As a result, you can tell if inflows and outflows from your operation combine to result in a positive cash flow or in a net drain. Any significant changes over time will also appear.
A monthly cash-flow projection helps to identify and eliminate deficiencies or surpluses in cash and to compare actual figures to past months. When cash-flow deficiencies are found, business financial plans must be altered to provide more cash. When excess cash is revealed, it might indicate excessive borrowing or idle money that could be invested. The objective is to develop a plan that will provide a well-balanced cash flow.
To achieve a positive cash flow, you must have a sound plan. Your business can increase cash reserves in a number of ways:
- Collecting receivables: Actively manage accounts receivable and quickly collect overdue accounts. Revenues are lost when a firm's collection policies are not aggressive.
- Tightening credit requirements: As credit and terms become more stringent, more customers must pay cash for their purchases, thereby increasing the cash on hand and reducing the bad-debt expense. While tightening credit is helpful in the short run, it may not be advantageous in the long run. Looser credit allows more customers the opportunity to purchase your products or services.
- Manipulating price of products: Many small businesses fail to make a profit because they erroneously price their products or services. Before setting your prices, you must understand your product's market, distribution costs, and competition. Monitor all factors that affect pricing on a regular basis and adjust as necessary.
- Taking out short-term loans: Loans from various financial institutions are often necessary for covering short-term cash-flow problems. Revolving credit lines and equity loans are common types of credit used in this situation.
- Increasing your sales: Increased sales would appear to increase cash flow. However, if large portions of your sales are made on credit, when sales increase, your accounts receivable increase, not your cash. Meanwhile, inventory is depleted and must be replaced. Because receivables usually will not be collected until 30 days after sales, a substantial increase in sales can quickly deplete your firm's cash reserves.
The employer must pay in whole or in part for certain legally mandated benefits and insurance coverage, including Social Security, unemployment insurance, and workers' compensation. Funding for the Social Security program comes from mandatory contributions from employers, employees and self-employed persons into an insurance fund that provides income during retirement years.
Full retirement benefits normally become available at age 66 for people born after 1943, and age 67 for those born in 1960 or later. Other aspects of Social Security deal with survivor, dependent and disability benefits, Medicare, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Unemployment insurance benefits are payable under the laws of individual states from the Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program.
Workers' compensation provides benefits to workers disabled by occupational illness or injury. Each state mandates coverage and provides benefits. In most states, private insurance or an employer self-insurance arrangement provides the coverage. Some states mandate short-term disability benefits as well.
A comprehensive benefit plan might include the following elements health insurance, disability insurance, life insurance, a retirement plan, flexible compensation, and sick, personal, and vacation leave. A benefit plan might also include bonuses, service awards, reimbursement of employee educational expenses and perquisites appropriate to employee responsibility.
As an employer, before you implement any benefit plan, it's important to decide what you're willing to pay for this coverage. You may also want to seek employee input on what benefits interest them. For instance, is a good medical plan more important than a retirement plan? Furthermore, you must decide whether it is more important to protect your employees from economic hardship now or in the future. Finally, you must decide if you want to administer the plan or have the insurance carrier do it.
Today, most health insurance falls under what is called "managed care" in which you pay monthly premiums, as well as co-pays and deductibles. The four main types of health insurance are briefly described below. For more information contact your plan administrator.
In addition, due to the passage of the Affordable Care Act of 2010, which was upheld by the Supreme Court in July 2012, starting in 2014 states may opt to create a "healthcare exchange" that enable individuals and small businesses to compare health plans, get answers to questions, find out if they are eligible for tax credits for private insurance or health programs like the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and enroll in a health plan that meets their needs.
Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) provide health care for their members through a network of hospitals and physicians. Comprehensive benefits typically include preventive care, such as physical examinations, well baby care and immunizations, and stop-smoking and weight control programs. The choice of primary care providers is limited to one physician within a network; however, there is frequently a wide choice for the primary care physician.
A preferred provider organization (PPO) is a network of physicians and/or hospitals that contracts with a health insurer or employer to provide health care to employees at predetermined discounted rates. PPOs offer a broad choice of health care providers.
Point of Service (POS) health care plans are similar to HMOs in that you choose a primary-care doctor from the plan's network, but you must have a referral in order to see in-network specialists. You can also see out of network providers as long as you get a referral first.
Another option to consider is a high-deductible health insurance combined with a health-savings account (HSA) or a health reimbursement arrangement (HRA). By law, the two must be linked.
Note: HSAs should not be confused with FSAs (Flexible Spending Accounts). Money that you set aside in a health savings account or a health reimbursement arrangement to pay for certain medical expenses is tax-free. HSAs must be linked to a high-deductible health insurance plan, and HRAs often are. (For preventive care, such as cancer screenings, you might not have to pay the deductible first.) Typically, a special debit type card is used for the HSA or HRA account to keep track of expenses and payments.
A disability plan provides income replacement for the employee who cannot work due to illness or accident. These plans are either short term or long term and are distinct from workers' compensation because they pay benefits for non-work-related illness or injury.
Short-term disability (STD) is usually defined as an employee's inability to perform the duties of his or her normal occupation. Benefits may begin on the first or the eighth day of disability and are usually paid for a maximum of 26 weeks. The employee's salary determines the benefit level, ranging from 60 to 80 percent of pay.
Long-term disability (LTD) benefits usually begin after short-term benefits conclude. LTD benefits continue for the length of the disability or until normal retirement. Again, benefit levels are a percentage of the employee's pay, usually between 60 and 80 percent. Social Security disability frequently offsets employer-provided LTD benefits. Thus, if an employee qualifies for Social Security disability benefits, these are deducted from benefits paid by the employer.
Traditionally, life insurance pays death benefits to beneficiaries of employees who die during their working years. Most employers purchase a group life policy for their employees. Typically an employee is provided with life insurance coverage that is at least equal to their yearly salary. For example, an employee who makes $50,000 per year would receive $50,000 of coverage. The employer is responsible for the premium but may require employees to pay part of the premium cost.
With self-insurance, the business predetermines and then pays a portion or all of the medical expenses of employees in a manner similar to that of traditional healthcare providers. Funding comes through the establishment of a trust or a simple reserve account and a self-insured employer assumes the risk for paying the health care claim costs for its employees.
As with other health care plans, the employee generally pays a portion of the cost of premiums. Catastrophic coverage is usually provided through a "stop-loss" policy, a type of coinsurance purchased by the company. The plan may be administered directly by the company or through an administrative services contract. Businesses with self-insured health plans are not subject to taxes, benefit requirements, profit limits, or other provisions of the Affordable Care Act.
The idea behind cafeteria plans is that amounts which would otherwise be taken as taxable salary are applied, usually tax-free, for needed services like health or child care. Besides saving employee income and social security taxes, salary diverted to cafeteria plan benefits isn't subject to social security tax on the employer. With a cafeteria plan, employees can choose from several levels of supplemental coverage or different benefit packages. These can be selected to help employees achieve personal goals or meet differing needs, such as health coverage (family, dental, vision), retirement income (401(k) plans) or specialized services (dependent care, adoption assistance, legal services--legal services amounts are taxable).
Complete and accurate financial record keeping is crucial to your business success. Good records provide the financial data that helps you operate more efficiently. Accurate and complete records enable you to identify all your business assets, liabilities, income, and expenses. That information helps you pinpoint both the strong and weak phases of your business operations.
Moreover, good records are essential for the preparation of current financial statements, such as the income statement (profit and loss) and cash-flow projection. These statements, in turn, are critical for maintaining good relations with your banker. Finally, good records help you avoid underpaying or overpaying your taxes. In addition, good records are essential during an Internal Revenue Service audit, if you hope to answer questions accurately and to the satisfaction of the IRS.
To assure your success, your financial records should show how much income you are generating now and project how much income you can expect to generate in the future. They should inform you of the amount of cash tied up in accounts receivable. Records also need to indicate what you owe for merchandise, rent, utilities, and equipment, as well as such expenses as payroll, payroll taxes, advertising, equipment and facilities maintenance, and benefit plans for yourself and employees. Records will tell you how much cash is on hand and how much is tied up in inventory. They should reveal which of your product lines, departments, or services are making a profit, as well as your gross and net profit.
The Basic Recordkeeping System
A basic record-keeping system needs a basic journal to record transactions, accounts receivable records, accounts payable records, payroll records, petty cash records, and inventory records.
An accountant can develop the entire system most suitable for your business needs and train you in maintaining these records on a regular basis. These records will form the basis of your financial statements and tax returns.
You must have a clear understanding of your firm's long- and short-range goals, the advantages and disadvantages of all of the alternatives to a computer and, specifically, what you want to accomplish with a computer. Compare the best manual (non-computerized) system you can develop with the computer system you hope to get. It may be possible to improve your existing manual system enough to accomplish your goals. In any event, one cannot automate a business without first creating and improving manual systems.
Business Applications Performed by Computers
A computer's multiple capabilities can solve many business problems from keeping transaction records and preparing statements and reports to maintaining customer and lead lists, creating brochures, and paying your staff. A complete computer system can organize and store many similarly structured pieces of information, perform complicated mathematical computations quickly and accurately, print information quickly and accurately, facilitate communications among individuals, departments, and branches, and link the office to many sources of data available through larger networks. Computers can also streamline such manual business operations as accounts receivable, advertising, inventory, payroll, and planning. With all of these operations, the computer increases efficiency, reduces errors, and cuts costs.
Computer Business Applications
Computers also can perform more complicated operations, such as financial modeling programs that prepare and analyze financial statements and spreadsheet and accounting programs that compile statistics, plot trends and markets and do market analysis, modeling, graphs, and forms. Various word processing programs produce typewritten documents and provide text-editing functions while desktop publishing programs enable you to create good quality print materials on your computer. Critical path analysis programs divide large projects into smaller, more easily managed segments or steps.